A moving average is used to smooth a series of values expressed as a function of time (time series). It eliminates the least significant fluctuations. Moving averages of order 9, 12, 25, etc. are calculated. The order is the number of periods (minutes, hours, days, etc.) over which the moving average is calculated. In this article, we are going to speak of Simple Moving Averages, for which each of the period's values are taken into account equally. Other kinds of moving averages exist, such as the Exponential Moving Average or Kaufman's Adaptative Moving Average.

The simplest way to interpret a Simple Moving Average is to compare them to the price of the asset. Since the Simple Moving Average eliminates the least significant fluctuations, it may lag below the price during bullish periods. On the contrary, it may trail above the price when the market is bearish. Hence, a simple way to interpret the simple moving average is to check whether the price is above or under it, to recognize bullish or bearish trends.

On the chart above, we are comparing the evolution of the price minute per minute to the 99 minutes Simple Moving Average in yellow. The first thing that we can notice is the smoothing power of the Simple Moving Average. The white line of the price is spiky while the yellow Simple Moving Average is smoother. We can see that the Simple Moving Average lags way behind the price when the trend is bullish. After the spike, the market is slightly bearish and the price tends to fluctuate below the Simple Moving Average.

Now, as we have seen, the curve of an asset's price shows variations. It is sometimes better to compare the positions of a short and a long Simple Moving average to evaluate trends with more security.

On the example above, we can see the price candles, a 7-period Simple Moving Average in yellow, and a 25-period Simple Moving Average in blue. We can see that the price of the asset frequently drops below the two Simple Moving Averages. But, if we look at the two curves, we cans see that the 7-period Simple Moving Average does not clearly fall below the 25-period Simple Moving Average. It seems to bounce on the blue curve. The 7-period SMA follows the price more closely that the longer SMA, which indicates the general trend: a strong bullish one. However, at the end, the 7-period SMA clearly drops below the 25-period SMA, indicating a clear trend reversal. The market is now bearish.

The calculation of the Simple Moving Average consists in adding up the different closing prices of the stock studied and dividing them by the number of periods. Thus, if the period chosen is fifty hours, we will have to add the fifty closing prices of the stock, before dividing the number obtained by fifty. In this way, we will obtain the Simple Moving Average.

You may find below an example of the Simple Moving Average calculation.

Close price | 5-period SMA |
---|---|

132 | Not enough periods |

134 | Not enough periods |

129 | Not enough periods |

139 | Not enough periods |

149 | 136,6 |

135 | 137,2 |

138 | 138 |

131 | 138,4 |

130 | 136,6 |

127 | 132,2 |

124 | 130 |

125 | 127,4 |

123 | 125,8 |

119 | 123,6 |

There are many indicators that are built upon simple moving averages. Here is an extensive list of indicators that are built upon Simple Moving Averages:

**Moving Average Crossover:**This indicator is used to identify potential buy and sell signals by comparing two or more moving averages of different time periods. When a shorter-term moving average crosses above a longer-term moving average, it is considered a bullish signal, and traders may interpret it as a signal to buy. Conversely, when a shorter-term moving average crosses below a longer-term moving average, it is considered a bearish signal, and traders may interpret it as a signal to sell.**Moving Average Ribbon:**This indicator uses multiple moving averages of different time periods to identify support and resistance levels. It can be used to identify potential trend reversal and confirm the direction of the trend.**Moving Average Envelope:**This indicator is used to identify overbought and oversold conditions by plotting two moving averages with a certain percentage deviation from the moving average. When the price moves outside of the envelope, it can indicate that the market is overbought or oversold.**Bollinger Bands:**Bollinger Bands are used to measure volatility by plotting a moving average and two standard deviation lines above and below it. The distance between the centerline and the upper and lower bands varies depending on volatility. When the price is moving inside of the Bollinger Bands, it can indicate a continuation of the trend, and when the price is moving outside of the Bollinger Bands, it can indicate a potential reversal.